We sought to provide guidelines for the nutritional and endocrine management of adults after bariatric surgery, including those with diabetes mellitus. The focus is on the immediate postoperative period and long-term management to prevent complications, weight regain, and progression of obesity-associated comorbidities. The treatment of specific disorders is only summarized.
Bariatric surgery is not a guarantee of successful weight loss and maintenance.
Increasingly, patients regain weight, especially those undergoing restrictive surgeries such as laparoscopic banding rather than malabsorptive surgeries such as Roux-en-Y bypass.
Active nutritional patient education and clinical management to prevent and detect nutritional deficiencies are recommended for all patients undergoing bariatric surgery.
Management of potential nutritional deficiencies is particularly important for patients undergoing malabsorptive procedures, and strategies should be employed to compensate for food intolerance in patients who have had a malabsorptive procedure to reduce the risk for clinically important nutritional deficiencies.
To enhance the transition to life after bariatric surgery and to prevent weight regain and nutritional complications, all patients should receive care from a multidisciplinary team including an experienced primary care physician, endocrinologist, or gastroenterologist and consider enrolling postoperatively in a comprehensive program for nutrition and lifestyle management.
Future research should address the effectiveness of intensive postoperative nutritional and endocrine care in reducing morbidity and mortality from obesity-associated chronic diseases.