Endocrine Reviews Journal Article

Biomarkers and Function of the β Cell in Diabetes

September 20, 2021
 

Steven E Kahn, Yi-Chun Chen, Nathalie Esser, Austin J Taylor, Daniël H van Raalte, Sakeneh Zraika, C Bruce Verchere
Endocrine Reviews, Volume 42, Issue 5, October 2021, Pages 528–583
https://doi.org/10.1210/endrev/bnab021

Abstract

The pathogenesis of hyperglycemia observed in most forms of diabetes is intimately tied to the islet β cell. Impairments in propeptide processing and secretory function, along with the loss of these vital cells, is demonstrable not only in those in whom the diagnosis is established but typically also in individuals who are at increased risk of developing the disease. Biomarkers are used to inform on the state of a biological process, pathological condition, or response to an intervention and are increasingly being used for predicting, diagnosing, and prognosticating disease. They are also proving to be of use in the different forms of diabetes in both research and clinical settings. This review focuses on the β cell, addressing the potential utility of genetic markers, circulating molecules, immune cell phenotyping, and imaging approaches as biomarkers of cellular function and loss of this critical cell. Further, we consider how these biomarkers complement the more long-established, dynamic, and often complex measurements of β-cell secretory function that themselves could be considered biomarkers.

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