Endocrine Reviews Journal Article

Metabolic Consequences of Solid Organ Transplantation

January 11, 2021
 

Mamatha Bhat, Shirine E Usmani, Amirhossein Azhie, Minna Woo
Endocrine Reviews, First published online on November 28, 2020, bnaa030
https://doi.org/10.1210/endrev/bnaa030

Abstract

Metabolic complications affect over 50% of solid organ transplant recipients. These include posttransplant diabetes, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, dyslipidemia, and obesity. Preexisting metabolic disease is further exacerbated with immunosuppression and posttransplant weight gain. Patients transition from a state of cachexia induced by end-organ disease to a pro-anabolic state after transplant due to weight gain, sedentary lifestyle, and suboptimal dietary habits in the setting of immunosuppression. Specific immunosuppressants have different metabolic effects, although all the foundation/maintenance immunosuppressants (calcineurin inhibitors, mTOR inhibitors) increase the risk of metabolic disease. In this comprehensive review, we summarize the emerging knowledge of the molecular pathogenesis of these different metabolic complications, and the potential genetic contribution (recipient +∕− donor) to these conditions. These metabolic complications impact both graft and patient survival, particularly increasing the risk of cardiovascular and cancer-associated mortality. The current evidence for prevention and therapeutic management of posttransplant metabolic conditions is provided while highlighting gaps for future avenues in translational research.

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