Endocrine Reviews Journal Article

Osteogenesis Imperfecta

August 30, 2021
 

Milena Jovanovic, Gali Guterman-Ram, Joan C Marini
Endocrine Reviews, First published online May 18, 2021, bnab017
https://doi.org/10.1210/endrev/bnab017

Abstract

Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a phenotypically and genetically heterogeneous skeletal dysplasia characterized by bone fragility, growth deficiency, and skeletal deformity. Previously known to be caused by defects in type I collagen, the major protein of extracellular matrix, it is now also understood to be a collagen-related disorder caused by defects in collagen folding, posttranslational modification and processing, bone mineralization, and osteoblast differentiation, with inheritance of OI types spanning autosomal dominant and recessive as well as X-linked recessive. This review provides the latest updates on OI, encompassing both classical OI and rare forms, their mechanism, and the signaling pathways involved in their pathophysiology. There is a special emphasis on mutations in type I procollagen C-propeptide structure and processing, the later causing OI with strikingly high bone mass. Types V and VI OI, while notably different, are shown to be interrelated by the interferon-induced transmembrane protein 5 p.S40L mutation that reveals the connection between the bone-restricted interferon-induced transmembrane protein-like protein and pigment epithelium-derived factor pathways. The function of regulated intramembrane proteolysis has been extended beyond cholesterol metabolism to bone formation by defects in regulated membrane proteolysis components site-2 protease and old astrocyte specifically induced-substance. Several recently proposed candidate genes for new types of OI are also presented. Discoveries of new OI genes add complexity to already-challenging OI management; current and potential approaches are summarized.

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