Endocrine Reviews Journal Article

Ovarian Anti-Müllerian Hormone

August 09, 2021
 

Nathalie di Clemente, Chrystèle Racine, Alice Pierre, Joëlle Taieb
Endocrine Reviews, First published online April 14, 2021, bnab012
https://doi.org/10.1210/endrev/bnab012

Abstract

Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), also called Müllerian inhibiting substance, was shown to be synthesized by the ovary in the 1980s. This article reviews the main findings of the past 20 years on the regulation of the expression of AMH and its specific receptor AMHR2 by granulosa cells, the mechanism of action of AMH, the different roles it plays in the reproductive organs, its clinical utility, and its involvement in the principal pathological conditions affecting women. The findings in respect of regulation tell us that AMH and AMHR2 expression is mainly regulated by bone morphogenetic proteins, gonadotropins, and estrogens. It has now been established that AMH regulates the different steps of folliculogenesis and that it has neuroendocrine effects. On the other hand, the importance of serum AMH as a reliable marker of ovarian reserve and as a useful tool in the prediction of the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and primary ovarian failure has also been acknowledged. Last but not least, a large body of evidence points to the involvement of AMH in the pathogenesis of PCOS.

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