Endocrine Reviews Journal Article

Secondary Osteoporosis

October 25, 2021
 

Peter R Ebeling, Hanh H Nguyen, Jasna Aleksova, Amanda J Vincent, Phillip Wong, Frances Milat
Endocrine Reviews, First published online September 3, 2021; bnab028
https://doi.org/10.1210/endrev/bnab028

Abstract

Osteoporosis is a global public health problem, with fractures contributing to significant morbidity and mortality. Although postmenopausal osteoporosis is most common, up to 30% of postmenopausal women, > 50% of premenopausal women, and between 50% and 80% of men have secondary osteoporosis. Exclusion of secondary causes is important, as treatment of such patients often commences by treating the underlying condition. These are varied but often neglected, ranging from endocrine to chronic inflammatory and genetic conditions. General screening is recommended for all patients with osteoporosis, with advanced investigations reserved for premenopausal women and men aged < 50 years, for older patients in whom classical risk factors for osteoporosis are absent, and for all patients with the lowest bone mass (Z-score ≤ −2). The response of secondary osteoporosis to conventional anti-osteoporosis therapy may be inadequate if the underlying condition is unrecognized and untreated. Bone densitometry, using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, may underestimate fracture risk in some chronic diseases, including glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis, type 2 diabetes, and obesity, and may overestimate fracture risk in others (e.g., Turner syndrome). FRAX and trabecular bone score may provide additional information regarding fracture risk in secondary osteoporosis, but their use is limited to adults aged ≥ 40 years and ≥ 50 years, respectively. In addition, FRAX requires adjustment in some chronic conditions, such as glucocorticoid use, type 2 diabetes, and HIV. In most conditions, evidence for antiresorptive or anabolic therapy is limited to increases in bone mass. Current osteoporosis management guidelines also neglect secondary osteoporosis and these existing evidence gaps are discussed.

Read the article

 

You may also like...

Publishing Benefits

Author Resource Center

We provide our journal authors with a variety of resources for increasing the discoverability and citation of their published work. Use these tools and tips to broaden the impact of your article.
Publishing Benefits

Author Resource Center

We provide our journal authors with a variety of resources for increasing the discoverability and citation of their published work. Use these tools and tips to broaden the impact of your article.

Thematic Issue

Latest Thematic Issue

immuno-endocrinology
Read our special collections of Endocrine Society journal articles, curated by topic, Altmetric Attention Scores, and Featured Article designations.

Read our special collections of Endocrine Society journal articles, curated by topic, Altmetric Attention Scores, and Featured Article designations.

Back to top
Short on time?

We'll come to you...

Get updates on the latest breakthroughs, clinical practice guidelines, and career development opportunities, straight to your inbox

Then take the next step: Set up your free website account and get exclusive access to even more great tools & content!