Endocrinology Journal Article

Circadian Regulation of the Beta Cell

September 20, 2021
 

Nivedita Seshadri and Christine A Doucette
Endocrinology, Volume 162, Issue 9, September 2021, bqab089
https://doi.org/10.1210/endocr/bqab089

Abstract

Beta cell dysfunction is central to the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D). In T2D, environmental and genetic influences can manifest beta cell dysfunction in many ways, including impaired glucose-sensing and secretion coupling mechanisms, insufficient adaptative responses to stress, and aberrant beta cell loss through increased cell death and/or beta cell de-differentiation. In recent years, circadian disruption has emerged as an important environmental risk factor for T2D. In support of this, genetic disruption of the circadian timing system in rodents impairs insulin secretion and triggers diabetes development, lending important evidence that the circadian timing system is intimately connected to, and essential for the regulation of pancreatic beta cell function; however, the role of the circadian timing system in the regulation of beta cell biology is only beginning to be unraveled. Here, we review the recent literature that explores the importance of the pancreatic islet/beta cell circadian clock in the regulation of various aspects of beta cell biology, including transcriptional and functional control of daily cycles of insulin secretion capacity, regulation of postnatal beta cell maturation, and control of the adaptive responses of the beta cell to metabolic stress and acute injury.

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