Endocrinology Journal Article

GnRH regulation of LH secretion

January 07, 2020
 

Su Young Han, Isaiah Cheong, Tim McLennan, Allan E Herbison
Endocrinology, Volume 161, Issue 2, February 2020, bqz045
https://doi.org/10.1210/endocr/bqz045

Abstract

The gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) pulse generator drives pulsatile luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion essential for fertility. However, the constraints within which the pulse generator operates to drive efficient LH pulsatility remain unclear. We used optogenetic activation of the arcuate nucleus kisspeptin neurons, recently identified as the GnRH pulse generator, to assess the efficiency of different pulse generator frequencies in driving pulsatile LH secretion in intact freely behaving male mice. Activating the pulse generator at 45-minute intervals generated LH pulses similar to those observed in intact male mice while 9-minute interval stimulation generated LH profiles indistinguishable from gonadectomized (GDX) male mice. However, more frequent activation of the pulse generator resulted in disordered LH secretion. Optogenetic experiments directly activating the distal projections of the GnRH neuron gave the exact same results, indicating the pituitary to be the locus of the high frequency decoding. To evaluate the state-dependent behavior of the pulse generator, the effects of high-frequency activation of the arcuate kisspeptin neurons were compared in GDX and intact mice. The same stimulus resulted in an overall inhibition of LH release in GDX mice but stimulation in intact males. These studies demonstrate that the GnRH pulse generator is the primary determinant of LH pulse profile and that a nonlinear relationship exists between pulse generator frequency and LH pulse frequency. This may underlie the ability of stimulatory inputs to the pulse generator to have opposite effects on LH secretion in intact and GDX animals.

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