The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism Journal Article

68Ga-Exendin-4 PET/CT Detects Insulinomas in Patients With Endogenous Hyperinsulinemic Hypoglycemia in MEN-1

July 12, 2019

Kwadwo Antwi, Guillaume Nicolas, Melpomeni Fani, Tobias Heye, Francois Pattou, Ashley Grossman, Philippe Chanson, Jean Claude Reubi, Aurel Perren, Beat Gloor, Deborah R Vogt, Damian Wild, Emanuel Christ
The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, Volume 104, Issue 12, December 2019, Pages 5843–5852
https://doi.org/10.1210/jc.2018-02754

Abstract

Context

Surgical intervention is advised in patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type-1 (MEN-1) and nonfunctioning pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PanNETs) with a size ≥20 mm. Functioning PanNETs, such as in patients with endogenous hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia (EHH) due to (one or multiple) insulinomas, should be treated surgically independent of size. Preoperative localization of insulinomas is critical for surgery.

Objective

To evaluate the feasibility and sensitivity of 68Ga-DOTA-exendin-4 positron emission tomography (PET)/CT in the detection of clinically relevant lesions in patients with MEN-1 and EHH in combination with MRI.

Design

Post hoc subgroup analysis of a larger prospective imaging study with 52 patients with EHH.

Patients

Six of 52 consecutive patients with EHH and genetically proven MEN-1 mutation were included.

Interventions

All patients received one 68Ga-DOTA-exendin-4 PET/CT and one MRI scan within 3 to 4 days. Thereafter, surgery was performed based on all imaging results.

Main Outcome Measures

Lesion-based sensitivity of PET/CT and MRI for detection of clinically relevant lesions was calculated. Readers were unaware of other results. The reference standard was surgery with histology and treatment outcome. True positive (i.e., clinically relevant lesions) was defined as PanNETs ≥20 mm or insulinoma.

Results

In six patients, 37 PanNETs were confirmed by histopathology. Sensitivity (95% CI) in the detection of clinically relevant lesions for combined PET/CT plus MRI, MRI, and PET/CT was 92.3% (64% to 99.8%), 38.5% (13.9% to 68.4%), and 84.6% (54.6% to 98.1%), respectively (P = 0.014 for the comparison of PET/CT plus MRI vs MRI). Postsurgery, EHH resolved in all patients.

Conclusion

68Ga-DOTA-exendin-4 PET/CT is feasible in patients with MEN-1 and EHH. The combination with MRI is superior to MRI alone in the detection of insulinomas and may guide the surgical strategy.

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