The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism Journal Article

Exercise Training Improves Bone Marrow Metabolism

November 23, 2020
 

Ronja Ojala, Kumail K Motiani, Kaisa K Ivaska, Milja Arponen, Jari-Joonas Eskelinen, Kirsi A Virtanen, Eliisa Löyttyniemi, Marja A Heiskanen, Mueez U-Din, Pirjo Nuutila, Kari K Kalliokoski, Jarna C Hannukainen
The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, Volume 105, Issue 12, December 2020, dgaa516
https://doi.org/10.1210/clinem/dgaa516

Abstract

Context

Exercise training improves bone mineral density, but little is known about the effects of training on bone marrow (BM) metabolism. BM insulin sensitivity has been suggested to play an important role in bone health and whole-body insulin sensitivity.

Objective

To study the effects of exercise training on BM metabolism.

Design

Randomized controlled trial.

Setting

Clinical research center.

Participants

Sedentary healthy (n = 28, 40–55 years, all males) and insulin resistant (IR) subjects (n = 26, 43–55 years, males/females 16/10)

Intervention

Two weeks of sprint interval training or moderate-intensity continuous training

Main outcome measures

We measured femoral, lumbar, and thoracic BM insulin-stimulated glucose uptake (GU) and fasting free fatty acid uptake (FFAU) using positron-emission tomography and bone turnover markers from plasma.

Results

At baseline, GU was highest in lumbar, followed by thoracic, and lowest in femoral BM (all Ps < 0.0001). FFAU was higher in lumbar and thoracic than femoral BM (both Ps < 0.0001). BM FFAU and femoral BM GU were higher in healthy compared to IR men and in females compared to males (all Ps < 0.05). Training increased femoral BM GU similarly in all groups and decreased lumbar BM FFAU in males (all Ps < 0.05). Osteocalcin and PINP were lower in IR than healthy men and correlated positively with femoral BM GU and glycemic status (all Ps < 0.05).

Conclusions

BM metabolism differs regarding anatomical location. Short-term training improves BM GU and FFAU in healthy and IR subjects. Bone turnover rate is decreased in insulin resistance and associates positively with BM metabolism and glycemic control.

Clinical Trial Registration Number

NCT01344928.

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