The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism Journal Article

Toxic Multinodular Goiter and 15 mCi of Radioiodine

July 20, 2020
 

Catarina Roque, Francisco Sousa Santos, Tania Pilli, Gilda Dalmazio, Maria Grazia Castagna, Furio Pacini
The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, Volume 105, Issue 7, July 2020, dgaa214
https://doi.org/10.1210/clinem/dgaa214

Abstract

Context

Long-term studies evaluating the treatment of toxic multinodular goiter (TMNG) with fixed activities of radioiodine (RAI) are lacking.

Objective

The objective of this work is to describe the effects of 15 mCi on thyroid volume, function, and autoimmunity in the long term.

Design and Setting

A population-based, retrospective analysis with up to 12 years of follow-up was conducted in Siena, Italy.

Participants

Adult patients (n = 153) with TMNG, naive to RAI, were included.

Methods

Evaluation was performed of thyroid function, antithyroid antibodies, and ultrasound scans before and yearly after RAI.

Main Outcome Measures

Evaluations included hyperthyroidism cure, hypothyroidism, volume reduction, nadir and regain, and antibody titer change.

Results

The study revealed mean volume reductions greater than or equal to 50% at 3 years after RAI; the greatest annual reduction was observed during the first year (30 ± 17.8%; P < .001). Most patients (60%) achieved their volume nadir 3 to 6 years after RAI. Although 22% patients showed volume regain, the net reduction was statistically significant as late as 9 years after RAI (P = .005). The mean time to hypothyroidism was 2.7 ± 2.4 years, and it was associated with greater reductions in volume (P = .01). During the first 3 years after treatment, hyperthyroid patients decreased approximately by 50% per year without additional RAI. There was no statistically significant association of antibody titers with thyroid function except for antithyrotropin receptor antibodies and hyperthyroidism (P = .004). At the end of follow-up there were 61.6% euthyroid patients, 11% hyperthyroid (4.8% overt), and 27.4% hypothyroid patients (2.7% overt). Hyperthyroidism was cured in 89%.

Conclusions

The treatment of TMNG with 15 mCi of RAI induced low hypothyroidism rates while providing high cure rates and significant volume reduction, which was maintained in the long term.

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