The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism Journal Article

Trends in Pediatric DKA Admissions

August 30, 2021
 

Estelle M Everett, Timothy P Copeland, Tannaz Moin, Lauren E Wisk
The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, Volume 106, Issue 8, August 2021, Pages 2343–2354
https://doi.org/10.1210/clinem/dgab287

Abstract

Background and Objectives

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) rates in the United States are rising. Prior studies suggest higher rates in younger populations, but no studies have evaluated national trends in pediatric populations and differences by subgroups. As such, we sought to examine national trends in pediatric DKA.

Methods

We used the 2006, 2009, 2012, and 2016 Kids’ Inpatient Database to identify pediatric DKA admissions among a nationally representative sample of admissions of youth ≤20 years old. We estimate DKA admission per 10 000 admissions and per 10 000 population, charges, length of stay (LOS), and trends over time among all hospitalizations and by demographic subgroups. Regression models were used to evaluate differences in DKA rates within subgroups overtime.

Results

Between 2006 and 2016, there were 149 535 admissions for DKA. Unadjusted DKA rate per admission increased from 120.5 (95% CI, 115.9–125.2) in 2006 to 217.7 (95% CI, 208.3–227.5) in 2016. The mean charge per admission increased from $14 548 (95% CI, $13 971–$15 125) in 2006 to $20 997 (95% CI, $19 973–$22 022) in 2016, whereas mean LOS decreased from 2.51 (95% CI, 2.45–2.57) to 2.28 (95% CI, 2.23–2.33) days. Higher DKA rates occurred among 18- to 20-year-old females, Black youth, without private insurance, with lower incomes, and from nonurban areas. Young adults, men, those without private insurance, and from nonurban areas had greater increases in DKA rates across time.

Conclusions

Pediatric DKA admissions have risen by 40% in the United States and vulnerable subgroups remain at highest risk. Further studies should characterize the challenges experienced by these groups to inform interventions to mitigate their DKA risk and to address the rising DKA rates nationally.

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