Journal of the Endocrine Society Journal Article

Analysis of GLP-1 RA and SGLT2i in T2DM

March 20, 2020
 

Alexis McKee, Ali Al-Khazaali, Stewart G Albert
Journal of the Endocrine Society, Volume 4, Issue 5, May 2020, bvaa037
https://doi.org/10.1210/jendso/bvaa037

Abstract

Context

Cardiovascular outcome trials (CVOT) of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RA) and sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) demonstrated reduction of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), cardiovascular deaths (CVD), and renal outcomes.

Objective

Assist in the prescribing decision regarding severity of illness and risk for adverse events.

Design

Meta-analysis of the major CVOT and previous meta-analyses.

Main Outcome Measures

Six trials of GLP-1 RA (51 762 subjects) and 4 trials of SGLT2i (33 457 subjects) showed both drug classes reduced MACE and CVD versus controls, with neither class preferred (comparison GLP1-RA vs SGLT2i: relative rate [rr] MACE 1.09, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.97, 1.22, P = ns; rr CVD 1.04, 95% CI 0.87, 1.24, P = ns). Hospitalization for heart failure (HHF) improved with SGLT2i (rr 0.68, CI 0.61, 0.76, P < 0.001) but not with GLP-1 RA, (rr 0.93, CI 0.86,1.03, P = ns). Meta-regression suggested benefits of the SGLT2i on CVD and HHF were accentuated with the underlying rate of MACE in the cohort (i.e., >10 events/1000pt*year). GLP-1 RA and SGLT2i showed reduction in renal outcomes (GLP-1 RA rr 0.83, CI 0.75, 0.91, p ≤ 0.001, SGLT2i rr 0.67, CI 0.57, 0.79, P < 0.001) without a preferential difference (GLP-1 RA vs SGLT2i, rr 1.24, CI 0.95, 1.61, P = ns; relative difference (rd) 0.005, CI -0.011, 0.021, P = ns). Serious adverse events for SGLT2i were mycotic genital infections in women (number needed to harm [NNH] = 13 and diabetic ketoacidosis NNH = 595. Gastrointestinal intolerance was the serious adverse event in the GLP1-RA class (NNH = 35).

Conclusion

GLP-1 RA and SGLT2i classes showed similar reduction in MACE, CVD, and renal outcomes. SGLT2i have advantages over GLP-1 RA in reduction in HHF.

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