Journal of the Endocrine Society Journal Article

Long-Term Follow-up of Cotwins

June 29, 2020
 

Taylor M Triolo, Laura Pyle, Sona Seligova, Liping Yu, Peter A Gottlieb, Andrea K Steck
Journal of the Endocrine Society, Volume 4, Issue 6, June 2020, bvaa053
https://doi.org/10.1210/jendso/bvaa053

Abstract

Context

Concordance for persistent islet autoimmunity (IA) and type 1 diabetes in monozygotic twins after probands are diagnosed is variable (30%-70%). Risk for development of IA in dizygotic twins is thought to be similar to nontwin siblings. Little is known in regard to the development of celiac autoimmunity (CDA) in twins of subjects with type 1 diabetes.

Objective

Our aim was to investigate the development of IA and CDA in cotwins of probands with type 1 diabetes.

Methods

Since 1995, the Twin Family Study has followed 336 twins (168 twin probands with type 1 diabetes and 168 cotwins) for a median of 14 years (interquartile range:10-18 years). Cotwins were followed for the development of IA, type 1 diabetes, and CDA.

Results

In monozygotic cotwins, cumulative incidence by age 20 was 14% for IA and 10% for CDA. Development of IA and CDA by age 20 was 9% and 12% in dizygotic cotwins, respectively. While the numbers are small, IA by age 30 years was 26% in monozygotic and 39% in dizygotic twins. In proportional hazards models, the proband’s younger age at diagnosis, but not sex or human leukocyte antigen were associated with time to IA and CDA in cotwins.

Conclusion

CDA risk by age 20 in cotwins was 10% to 12%. With long-term follow-up, cumulative incidence for IA is high in dizygotic twins, similar to monozygotic twins, suggesting a role of possible early environmental factors shared by type 1 diabetes discordant cotwins.

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