Journal of the Endocrine Society Journal Article

Tolvaptan Versus Fluid Restriction in SIADH

July 27, 2020
 

Andrea Kleindienst, Simeon Georgiev, Sven Martin Schlaffer, Michael Buchfelder
Journal of the Endocrine Society, Volume 4, Issue 7, July 2020, bvaa068
https://doi.org/10.1210/jendso/bvaa068

Abstract

Context

The relevance of hyponatremia has been acknowledged by guidelines from the United States (2013) and Europe (2014). However, treatment recommendations differ due to limited evidence.

Objective

In hyponatremia following pituitary surgery—caused by the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) secretion—we compared fluid restriction with the pharmacological increase of water excretion by blocking the vasopressin 2 receptors with tolvaptan at a low and a moderate dose.

Design

Prospective observational study.

Setting

Neurosurgical Department of a University hospital with more than 200 surgical pituitary procedures per year.

Patients

Patients undergoing pituitary surgery and developing serum sodium below 136 mmol/L. The diagnosis of SIADH was established by euvolemia (daily measurement of body weight and fluid balance), inappropriately concentrated urine (specific gravity), and exclusion of adrenocorticotropic and thyroid-stimulating hormone deficiency.

Intervention

Patients were treated with fluid restriction (n = 40) or tolvaptan at 3.75 (n = 38) or 7.5 mg (n = 48).

Main Outcome Measures

Treatment efficacy was assessed by the duration of hyponatremia, sodium nadir, and length of hospitalization. Safety was established by a sodium increment below 10 mmol/L per day and exclusion of side effects.

Results

Treatment with 7.5 mg of tolvaptan resulted in a significant attenuation of hyponatremia and in a significant overcorrection of serum sodium in 30% of patients. The duration of hospitalization did not differ between treatment groups.

Conclusions

Tolvaptan at a moderate dose is more effective than fluid restriction in the treatment of SIADH. Overcorrection of serum sodium may be a side effect of tolvaptan even at low doses.

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