"The Presidents of the Society have been representative of its character in variety of background, range of accomplishment, and diversity of personality. The roster of past Presidents reflects in their several specialties the development of endocrinology as attention turned from physiology to chemistry, from steroids to proteins and peptides, from the adrenal cortex to the thyroid, from the pancreas to the pituitary, from metabolism to reproduction, and to neuropeptides and molecular endocrinology." Alfred E. Wilhelmi, President 1968-1969
"Over the past decade, the clinical, practicing endocrinologist has also taken their place within the Hall of Presidents, thereby reflecting those leaders who apply the remarkable advances in basic and translational endocrine research to the diagnosis and treatment of patients on a daily basis." Leonard Wartofsky, President 2006-2007
From 1918 through 1985, many of the President's published their "Presidential Address" in the Society's journals. If available, the Presidential Address is provided within the profile. These papers provide a snapshot of the field during the President's term and offer unique insights from endocrinology leaders.
Charles E. de M. Sajous
Charles E. de M Sajous, MD (1852 – 1929) was a pioneer and noteworthy investigator in the field of endocrinology. He will be best remembered for his great interest in the subject of the internal secretions. Dr. Sajous was an active member of many professional societies, including serving as the first president of the Endocrine Society (formerly , Association for the Study of Internal Secretions.)
Lewellys Franklin Barker, MD (1867-1943) was appointed professor of anatomy at the University of Chicago in 1900. In 1905, Barker was appointed director of medicine and physician-in-chief at the Johns Hopkins Hospital, succeeding William Osler. He established laboratories at Johns Hopkins for the study of infectious diseases, physiology, and chemistry. Barker specialized in the study of neurology, endocrinology, and internal medicine.
Harvey Williams Cushing, MD (1869-1939) often referred to as the "father of modern neurosurgery," was a pioneer in the field of neurology and developed many of the basic techniques and procedures used in surgery of the brain. He made fundamental discoveries about the pituitary gland and recognized a new disease (subsequently named after him). Cushing established the Hunterian Laboratory of Experimental Medicine at Johns Hopkins and wrote a Pulitzer Prize-winning biography of William Osler.
Walter Bradford Cannon, MD (1871-1945) began his career in science as a Harvard undergraduate where he researched the mechanism of swallowing and the physiology of digestion. He coined the term "fight or flight" response, and he expanded on Claude Bernard’s concept of homeostasis. Cannon turned his attention to a broadly conceived investigation of the physiology of the emotions, thus becoming the first major investigator to work systematically on this topic. He popularized his theories in his book The Wisdom of the Body, first published in 1932.
William Engelbach, MD (1877-1932) is known as one of the founders in Endocrinology. He administered the gland injects on the first human being and prepared the report on the remarkable success of the experiment. By means of lantern slides and with actual patients, he showed diseased conditions and deformities produced by malfunction of the organs and internal secretion. He served as Professor of Medicine at the St. Louis School of Medicine.
Walter Timme, MD (1874-1956) was on the staff of the Neurological Institute of New York, ending his career there as Director of Endocrinology. Timme was a pioneer in the field of neuroendocrinology and wrote extensively on the subject. In 1919, he described the pluriglandular disease later known as “Timme’s syndrome.”
Leonard G. Rowntree, MD (1883-1959) working with Professor John J. Abel found that phenolsulfonphthalein is eliminated from the body almost entirely through the kidneys. The clinical application of this observation by Dr. Rowntree led to the introduction of the Rowntree-Geraghty kidney function test.
James Bertram Collip, PhD (1892-1965) was part of the Toronto group which isolated insulin. He served as the Chair of the Department of Biochemistry at McGill University from 1928–1941 and Dean of Medicine at the University of Western Ontario from 1947–1961.
Roy G. Hoskins
Roy Graham Hoskins, MD, PhD (1880-1964) studied the activity of the internal secretions in relation to their psychological effects on patients. He was particularly interested in the pituitary, the thymus, and the adrenal glands and the interrelation of their secretions to other glands. Dr. Hoskins was instrumental in the formation of the Society; was the editor of Endocrinology for twenty-five years; and was instrumental in influencing the founding of The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology.
Hans Lisser, MD (1888-1964) served as Chief of Endocrinology at the University of California for more than forty years. He was a remarkable clinician and teacher. While at Johns Hopkins, he came under the influence of great teachers like Osler, Barker, Halsted and Welch. In addition, he studied with Dr. Harvey Cushing. It was not until 1914 that Dr. Lisser shifted his primary field of interest to the field of endocrinology. While at the University of California he organized the Endocrine Clinic and remained Chief until his retirement in 1956.
Oscar Riddle, PhD (1877-1968) was a biologist known for his research on the pituitary gland, and for isolating the hormone prolactin. His research spanned endocrinology, the physiology of reproduction, animal pigmentation, and the nature and functional basis of sex. Dr. Riddle was one of the great early pioneers in endocrinology and especially in hormones and the pituitary gland.
Peter Bassoe, MD (1874-1945) was interested in organic neurology, he looked upon the field of nervous and mental disabilities as one; he did not believe in narrow specialization. His extraordinary command of the entire field was evidenced especially in the Yearbook of the Nervous and Mental Diseases with which he was connected for a third of a century. He joined the faculty at Rush Medical College in 1905 and retained his position until 1941 as the head of the Department of Neurology.
Edward Calvin Kendall, PhD (1886-1972) was awarded the 1950 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine, for isolating cortisone from the adrenal cortex. Kendall was a biochemist at the Graduate School of the Mayo Foundation at the time of the award. Kendall was also responsible for the isolation of thyroxin and worked with the team that crystallized glutathione and identified its chemical structure.
Joseph C. Aub, MD (1890-1973) was part of the MGH unit that spent 20 months in France and treated soldiers at base hospitals. While in France, he collaborated with Walter Cannon to study the effects of traumatic shock on the recently wounded. He returned to MGH where he developed the theory that the study of normal cells could lead to an understanding of abnormal cell growth, including cancer.
Allan Winter Rowe, PhD (1879-1934) was a professor of chemistry at Boston University School of Medicine for much of his professional life (1906-1934). He primarily studied physiological chemistry with an emphasis on the ductless glands. His research led him to design a system of objective tests to recognize endocrine disorders. Among his many publications, three were published in a series: "Studies of Endocrine Glands," "The Metabolism of Galactose," and "Vital Function Studies."
Jean Paul Pratt, MD (1882-1981) spent most of his career at the Henry Ford Hospital in Detroit, Michigan, where he served as its first and long-time chief of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Early in his career, he developed a keen interest in reproductive gynecology, particularly in the field of ovigenesis. In 1928, Dr. Pratt, with Edgar Allen, Q.U. Newell, and J.L. Bland as co-authors reported in JAMA the first successful recovery of "human ova from the uterine tubes."
Frank Alexander Hartman, PhD (1883-1971) served as a professor of physiology at the University of Buffalo. Dr. Hartman was a distinguished teacher and scientist whose research focused on the adrenal glands.
Francis Marion Pottenger, Sr., MD (1869-1961) co-founded the Pottenger Sanatorium for treatment of tuberculosis. After his wife died of tuberculosis in 1898 he decided to take up the study of TB as his life's work. Dr. Pottenger's devotion to the Association of Internal Secretions was exceptional. He was secretary for fifteen years and then President for two years.
Fred Conrad Koch, PhD (1876-1948) was a Distinguished Service Professor Emeritus of Biochemistry at the University of Chicago and Director of Biochemical Research, Armour & Company. He is best remembered for his elucidation of testicular function. His research led to the isolation and synthesis of several hormones, including testosterone and other androgens.
The Fred Conrad Koch Lifetime Achievement Award is named in Koch’s honor. It is the highest honor bestowed by the Endocrine Society. The award recognizes the lifetime achievements and exceptional contributions of an individual to the field of endocrinology.
David Preswick Barr
David Preswick Barr, MD (1889-1977) was Professor and Chairman of the Department of Medicine at Washington University Medical School in St. Louis. At the time, he was the youngest chairman ever to have been appointed in a US medical school. After returning to The New York Hospital-Cornell Medical Center, he became an advocate of outpatient care in the clinical setting as well as advocating for health insurance for patients.
Philip E. Smith
Philip Edward Smith, PhD (1884-1970) was best known for his work studying the pituitary gland and his skill in devising and carrying out methods for hypophysectomy in the tadpole and rat. From 1927 to 1952 he served as Professor of Anatomy at the College of Physicians and Surgeons at Columbia University. After his retirement, he became a Research Associate at Stanford University where he published his last paper in 1963.
Elmer Louis Severinghaus, MD (1894-1980) was appointed Full Professor in 1938 at the University of Wisconsin. He participated in the early clinical study of new principles in insulin therapy, and carbohydrate and electrolyte metabolism in combination with insulin therapy. In addition, Dr. Severinghaus was also deeply involved in diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of thyroid disease. In 1946, Dr. Severinghaus began his second career where he was ultimately VP for Clinical Research at Hoffman La Roche. He was involved in the clinical introduction of two instrumental drugs, a sulfa drug and the first drugs effective against tuberculosis.
Edgar Allen, PhD (1892 – 1943) was Professor of Anatomy and Chairman of the Department of Anatomy at Yale University School of Medicine. He is known for the discovery of estrogen and his role in creating the field of endocrinology. His pioneer studies on the female sex hormone and on the physiology of menstruation brought him international recognition.
Eberle Kost Shelton
Eberle Kost Shelton, MD (1888 – 1955) received his MD degree from the University of Colorado Medical School in 1911. In 1927 he met, and later collaborated with Dr. William Engelbach in the publication of a four-volume basic work entitled "Endocrine Medicine" (1932). He was an illustrious clinician and keen observer with a propensity for teaching. He served as director of The,Endocrine Clinic, City and County Hospital of Los Angeles, 1931-1954; Associate Clinical Professor of Medicine, University of Southern California Medical School, 1931-1953; and Clinical Professor of. Medicine, University of California Medical School at Los Angeles, 1953-1955.
Carl R. Moore
Carl Richard Moore, PhD (1892 – 1955) studied sex hormones in animals, focusing on the role of hormones on sex differentiation, the optimal conditions under which males produce sperm, and the effects of vasectomy on male sex hormone production. Dr. Moore's research to create hermaphrodites in the lab contributed to the theory of a feedback loop between the pituitary and the fetal gonadal hormones to control sex differentiation. Most of his career was spent at the University of Chicago, where he ultimately chaired the Zoology Department.
Fuller Albright, MD (1900 – 1969) made numerous contributions to the field of endocrinology, especially to the area of calcium metabolism. Dr. Albright spent much of his career at the Massachusetts General Hospital conducting research, teaching and practicing medicine. He described polyostotic fibrous dysplasia, the clinical and pathological features and different types of hyperparathyroidism, the mechanism of Cushing’s syndrome, renal tubular acidosis, and recognized the importance of menopause on osteoporosis. He also delineated forms of congenital adrenal hyperplasia.
Cyril Norman Hugh Long, DSc, MDCM (1901 – 1970) was a biochemist and academic administrator. He was Sterling Professor of physiological chemistry at Yale University for 31 years. His primary areas of research interest included, metabolism of diabetic patients during exercise; the hypothalamus; as well as muscle glycogen and effects of hypophysectomy and adrenalectomy on the formation and dissipation of this polysaccharide. A major discovery was the demonstration that ACTH lowers the concentration of cholesterol in the adrenal glands. The research showed that ACTH lowers ascorbic acid content of the adrenal gland.
John S.L. Browne, MD, PhD (1904 – 1984) spent his entire academic career at McGill University. By 1948 he was Professor and Chairman of the Departments of Medicine and Experimental Medicine, as well as Director of the University Clinic at the Royal Victoria Hospital. Dr. Browne published numerous studies on steroid hormones with JB Collip and DL Thompson, as well as other studies on stress with Hans Selye. He was the first non-US citizen to serve as President of the Endocrine Society.
Edward A. Doisy
Edward Adelbert Doisy, PhD (1893 – 1986) received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1943 with Henrik Dam for their discovery of vitamin K and its chemical structure. In 1923, he became Professor and Chairman of the new Department of Biochemistry at St. Louis University. Dr. Doisy primarily conducted biochemical studies of the sex hormones and vitamin K. He also succeeded in isolating oestrone, as well as recovering oestradiol from the ovaries of swine, estimating the concentration of liquor folliculi.
Edward H. Rynearson
Edward H. Rynearson, MD (1901 – 1987) was appointed the position of Consultant in Internal Medicine at the Mayo Clinic in 1932 and held the position for the next 34 years. Dr. Rynearson took great pride in being a clinician. At the time of his presidency, the Endocrine Society, alternated the presidency between a clinician and basic science researcher. Soon after his presidency the distinction was largely ignored. His primary interests all centered about clinical endocrinology and the fair and respectful treatment of patients, even those with terminal illnesses.
Gregory Pincus, PhD (1903 – 1967) was a biologist and researcher who was one of the three "fathers" of the birth control pill. His research also focused on the properties of hydrocortisone. He was credited with the development of Estrone, a hormone used in the treatment of breast cancer and pregnancy complications.
Paul Starr, MD (1893 – 1982) combined an academic career in clinical thyroid research with an endocrine practice. He was appointed Chairman of the Department of Medicine in 1948 at the University of Southern California and was a key figure in expanding the clinical research activities and academic growth.
Earl T. Engle
Earl T. Engle, PhD (1896 – 1957) spent twenty nine years of this scientific career at Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons where he was Professor of Anatomy. His collaborative work with Philip E. Smith clarified the role of the anterior pituitary, especially in the regulation of gonadal function. In addition, he had an interest in hormonal control of menstruation.
Allan T. Kenyon
Allan T. Kenyon, MD (1906 – 1978) was a vital member of the generation of clinical endocrinologists that carried the methods and techniques of the bench investigator to the bedside and clinic. It was said that his "thoughtful leadership of The Endocrine Society contributed substantially to the unique cohesive spirit between basic and clinical scientists…" Dr. Kenyon's primary area of interest involved testosterone. He developed the idea that anabolic steroids might hasten recovery from debilitating disease and examined effects of testosterone in males and females.
Warren Otto Nelson, PhD (1906 – 1964) received his PhD from New York University in 1931. Dr. Nelson was Medical Director of the Population Council and Toxicology and Professor of Anatomy and Endocrinology at the Albany Medical College. His research focused in the area of reproductive physiology. A particular area of interest was the role of both testicular and pituitary hormones in the regulation of sperm formation.
Lawson Wilkins, MD (1894 – 1963) spent the first twenty-five years in private practice. In 1946 he engaged in full time research and teaching in pediatric endocrinology. His contributions to pediatrics and pediatric endocrinology were substantial. He was a gifted teacher, practitioner, and investigator. Dr. Wilkins spent the majority of his career at Johns Hopkins University.
Leo Tolstoy Samuels, PhD (1899 – 1978) after earning his Doctorate in Philosophy at the University of Chicago he moved to Los Angeles, California where he became interested in the role of hormones in tumor growth. In 1944, Samuels accepted the position of Chairman of the Department of Biological Chemistry at the University of Utah where he was able to significantly expand the department.
Ernst Perry McCullagh, MD (1901-1978) was the head of the department of endocrinology and metabolism at the Cleveland Clinic for thirty-four years. During his career, he published over three hundred scientific papers. Dr. McCullagh was a severely injured survivor of the disastrous Cleveland Clinic fire of 1929, an event that forced him to change from a career in surgery to one in internal medicine. A pioneer in endocrinology, Dr. Perry was among the first physicians to use insulin in the treatment of diabetes, and he was credited with being the first physician in the United States to administer male hormones to a patient.
Dwight Joyce Ingle, PhD (1907 – 1978) was responsible for at least three signal advances in endocrine science – development of a bioassay for adrenal cortical hormones that facilitated the purification of cortisone, documentation that the adrenal cortex and the pituitary gland interact by a negative feedback mechanism, and characterization of the permissive role of adrenal hormones in homeostatic control mechanisms. Dr. Ingle spent twenty years of his career at The University of Chicago's Ben May Institute.
John Eager Howard, MD (1902 – 1985) discovered the association between unilateral renal artery disease and high blood pressure, the development of the Ellsworth-Howard test to determine responsiveness to parathyroid hormone and the introduction of a highly effective approach to the prevention of recurrent kidney stones. A member of the faculty for nearly 60 years, Dr. Howard was the founder and first director of the Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine.
Edwin Bennett Astwood, MD (1909 –1976) was a Bermudian-American physiologist and endocrinologist, his research on endocrine system led to treatments for hyperthyroidism. During his tenure at Tufts Medical Center a number of advances were made, including the introduction of anti-thyroid drugs for the treatment of hyperthyroidism, the use of thyroid hormone therapy for the treatment of benign and malignant thyroid nodules, the isolation and preparation of ACTH for clinical use, and the purification of human growth hormone, allowing the first breakthrough treatment for pituitary dwarfism.
The Edwin B. Astwood Award Lecture is presented for outstanding research in endocrinology. Originally established in 1967, this award was later renamed to honor the memory of Edwin B. Astwood.
George W. Thorn
George W. Thorn, MD (1906 – 2004) was named physician-in-chief of the Peter Bent Brigham Hospital (PBB) in 1942, a position he held for thirty years. Under his leadership, he was involved in life-saving advances, including use of the first artificial kidney dialysis machine and the first successful organ transplant in humans. In addition, his other areas of specialty included a focus on adrenal gland disorders, most notably Addison’s disease. His research of cortisone and ACTH led to new treatments of other diseases such as hypertension, rheumatoid arthritis and diabetes.
Harold L. Mason, PhD, completed his undergraduate work at the University of Southern California and went on to the University of Chicago to earn his doctorate in organic chemistry. He spent most of his career at the Mayo Clinic. He first came to Rochester in 1928 as first assistant in biochemistry at the clinic and was appointed to the staff that same year. He became head of the biochemistry section in 1957 and continued in that capacity until October 1964 when he became a senior consultant in biochemistry. Dr. Mason had a special interest in research on the structure of glutathione and methods for the determination of this substance and in the isolation and structure of adrenal cortical hormones and urinary steroids, and in studies of porphyrins and vitamins. In 1959 he was awarded a scholar’s grant by the Endocrine Society, was elected president of the society in 1962, and in 1966 received the Fred Conrad Koch Award from the society.
Francis Dring Wetherill Lukens, MD (1899 – 1978) served as Director of the Cox Institute and Professor of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania for thirty years. He maintained a life-long interest in experimental models for diabetes, wrote the definitive review of alloxan diabetes for Physiological Reviews in 1948, and studied the effects of growth hormone and glucocorticoid administration on pancreatic β-cell morphology and its modification by correction of hyperglycemia.
Roy O. Greep, PhD (1905 – 1997) spent most of his career at Harvard University teaching, as well as serving as Dean of the Graduate School of Dental Health. He made the crucially important observation that male and female function could be reestablished regardless of the donor's age or gender and that sexual dimorphism were not properties intrinsic to the pituitary gland. These observations dethroned the pituitary gland as the "conductor of the endocrine symphony" and placed the hypothalamus in that lofty position, thus creating the new discipline of neuroendocrinology.
Rulon W. Rawson, MD (1908-1989) focused much of his research on the study of the regulation of thyroid function. He investigated the actions of antithyroid medications, such as thiouracil in hyperthyroid patients in preparation for surgery and the utility of radioactive iodine scanning of the thyroid to assess function. He contributed greatly to the field of thyroid cancer, reporting the use of radioactive iodine for the diagnosis and eventual treatment of thyroid cancer and associated metastatic disease. Throughout his career he held many distinguished positions, including research fellow at Harvard Medical School and staff physician at Massachusetts General Hospital; faculty positions at Cornell University Medical College and at the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Institute; dean at the New Jersey College of Medicine and Dentistry from 1967 to 1972; vice president for education and program development at the University of Texas MD Anderson Hospital; and director of the Bonneville Center for Research in Cancer Cause and Prevention in Salt Lake City.
Henry H. Turner, MD (1892 –1970) was Associate Dean of the University of Oklahoma College of Medicine. He was actively involved in medical research in disorders of the anterior pituitary and related problems of growth, had great interest in neuroendocrine effects in regulating hormone secretion, as well as interest in ovarian failure. He described and developed the first treatment for the condition that bears his name, "Turner Syndrome." He was on the initial board which decided that "Endocrine" would become a specialty of its own.
Alfred E. Wilhelmi, PhD (1910 – 1994) was the Chairman of the Department of Biochemistry at the Emory University School of Medicine from 1950 to 1977. A research endocrinologist, Dr. Wilhelmi was internationally recognized for his pioneer contributions to the understanding of anterior pituitary hormones. Dr. Wilhelmi published more than 80 articles in scientific journals during his long and outstanding career and received many awards and honors.
Robert H. Williams, MD (1909 – 1979) was the Chair of Medicine at the University of Washington School of Medicine. His interests ranged from the pharmacology of antithyroid drugs and the clinical evaluation of radioiodine therapy to studies of insulin and glucagon secretion and metabolism and the regulation of lipid metabolism. Dr. Williams was best known for his Textbook of Endocrinology, which provided up to date summaries of basic normal and pathologic endocrine physiology, with practical descriptions of clinical disease.
Alexander Albert, MD, PhD (1911 – 1997) after joining the Mayo Clinic in 1946, Dr. Albert continued his work on thyroid physiology. He first developed an interest in the thyroid gland, TSH and the use of radioactive iodine in the study of iodine metabolism at the Massachusetts General Hospital, working with Rulon Rawson. As his career progressed at the Mayo, he developed an interest in reproduction, particularly male aspects. He also developed a bioassay for chorionic gonadotropin, which was used in pregnancy tests and started a series of classical studies of urinary gonadotropins.
William Daughaday, MD (1918 – 2013) was the head of the Metabolism Division in the Department of Medicine at Washington University for thirty-four years. He was a leading diabetes researcher and world authority on growth hormone (GH). His demonstration of the indirect effects of GH on extracellular matrix biosythesis in cartilage, subsequently formulated as the somatomedin hypothesis of GH action, opened an entirely new scientific field. His research continues to influence basic, clinical and translational science to this day.
Lewis L. Engel
Lewis Libman Engel, PhD (1909-1978) was a member of both the faculty of Arts and Sciences and the Medical School at Harvard, finally serving as Chairman of the Department of Biological Chemistry from 1976 to 1978. In addition, Dr. Engel was American Cancer Society Professor of Biological Chemistry at Harvard from 1966-1978. During his long and productive career, he worked on terpenoids, adrenal cortical physiology, bile acids, and the role of steroid hormones in cancer. His early work with George Thorn on adrenal cortical function in regulation of electrolytes is particularly noteworthy.
Grant W. Liddle
Grant W. Liddle, MD (1921 – 1989) Chairman of the Department of Medicine at Vanderbilt from 1968-1983. He was best known for his research in hypertension, Cushing’s syndrome, and diabetes. Dr. Liddle had an interest in the biological, biochemical, and clinical problems of the pituitary-adrenocortical relationships in human beings. Throughout his career he trained more than 70 endocrinologists, many of whom went on to exemplary careers of their own.
Seymour Lieberman, PhD (1916 – 2012) interests spanned the regulatory effects of classical hormonal systems, to the understanding of novel pathways of steroidogenesis in the central nervous system, suggesting new pathways leading to steroid synthesis from cholesterol, in particular modifying the classical mode of cholesterol side-chain cleavage by hydroxylase activities. Dr. Lieberman had a broad influence on the field of endocrinology, however, he preferred the term "hormonology" to describe his qualitative and quantitative work exploring hormonal formation and activity.
Seymour Reichlin, MD, PhD developed his interest in neuroendocrinology as a medical student. Among his faculty positions he has been Professor of Medicine at the University of Rochester, University of Connecticut, Tufts University, and the University of Arizona. Although much of his work involved basic laboratory research, his interests in clinical medicine have allowed him to explore parallel tracks in clinical disorders.
Ernst Knobil, PhD (1926 – 2000) was a scientist known for his outstanding scientific accomplishments, of leadership positions in endocrinology and physiology, and of mentorship to numerous students and fellows. His discovery that pulsatile GnRH stimulates LH, whereas continuous GnRH desensitizes pituitary LH secretion, has forever altered the field of reproductive endocrinology and enabled the development of the world's first hormonal contraceptives. Knobil’s research into hormonal regulation in primates led to his discovery of growth hormone’s species-specific effects. These discoveries led to the first treatment of growth hormone deficiency.
Griff Terry Ross, MD, PhD (1920 – 1985) held numerous positions at the National Institutes of Health for twenty-one years culminating in his appointment as Deputy Director of the NIH Clinical Center. Dr. Ross' legacy spans more than 200 publications describing both basic and clinical areas of endocrinology, most notably reproductive endocrinology. He took great pride in advising young investigators, making certain that both their personal and scientific needs were met.
Roalyn YalowRosalyn Sussman Yalow, PhD (1921 – 2011) was a medical physicist who co-developed the radioimmunoassay (RIA) technique for measuring hormones and other biological substances and became the second woman to win the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (together with Roger Guillemin and Andrew Schally.) RIA ushered in a new era in the field of endocrinology, making possible major advances in diagnosing and treating hormonal problems related to diabetes, growth, thyroid function, and fertility.
Mortimer B. Lipsett, MD (1921 – 1985) was Director of the National Institute of Arthritis, Diabetes, and Digestive and Kidney Diseases of the National Institutes of Health. He developed a lifelong interest in the role of the endocrine system in neoplasia during his time as an endocrine fellow at the Sloan-Kettering Institute. During his tenure with the NIH, chemotherapy for choriocarcinoma was conceived, refined, and made the standard of practice. This was the first cancer to be cured with chemotherapy alone.
Elwood Vernon Jensen, PhD (1920 – 2012) was the Distinguished University Professor, George and Elizabeth Wile Chair in Cancer Research at the University of Cincinnati College of Medicine’s Vontz Center for Molecular Studies. While at the University of Chicago, Dr. Jensen carried out his ground-breaking work on understanding estrogen action. His research on the causes and treatment of hormone-dependent breast cancer revolutionized the diagnosis and treatment. In 2004, he received the Albert Lasker Award for Basic Medical Research for his research on estrogen receptors. He is considered the father of the field of hormone action.
Melvin M. Grumbach, MD (1925-2016) was a pediatric endocrinologist who served as the Edward B. Shaw Distinguished Professor of Pediatrics, Emeritus at the University of California, San Francisco School of Medicine. Dr. Grumbach is noted for his research and writing on the effect of hormones and the central nervous system on growth and puberty and their disorders; the function of the human sex chromosomes; and disorders of sexual development. He made many seminal contributions toward the understanding of pediatric endocrinology, including extensive studies on the development and function of the endocrine and neuroendocrine systems from fetal life through puberty.
Neena Schwartz, PhD is one of the world's most influential reproductive biologists, whose seminal work in endocrinology has changed the way science thinks about the relationship between the brain and the reproductive system. She serves as the director for reproductive science and as the William Deering Professor Emerita of Biological Sciences at Northwestern University. Dr. Schwartz‘s leadership as both a scientist and administrator led to the formation of two national organizations that have each been successful in increasing the numbers and influence of women in their fields: the Association of Women in Science and Women in Endocrinology. In 2010, she wrote a memoir of her life in science, A Lab of My Own.
Delbert A. Fisher, MD is a renowned leader in the development of international neonatal screening programs for the detection of congenital hypothyroidism. Today, every state in the US tests newborns for congenital hypothyroidism. Dr. Fisher conceptualized the possibility of this screening test, developed the microassay methods that made this screening feasible, and fostered its implementation on a national scale. CH screening resulted in significantly reduced incidence of abnormal newborn development caused by untreated congenital hypothyroidism. In addition to his extensive contributions to the advancement of endocrine research, he has served the endocrinology community as a distinguished educator.
Bert W. O'Malley, MD is the Tom Thompson Distinguished Service Professor of Molecular and Cellular Biology at Baylor College of Medicine. Dr. O'Malley’s work has been on the primary actions of steroid hormones and nuclear receptors. He has published over 600 papers and holds 22 patents in the fields of gene regulation, molecular endocrinology and steroid receptors and transcriptional coactivators. His work on molecular mechanisms of steroid receptor coactivators has great relevance to genetic and reproductive diseases, disorders of metabolism and diabetes, and especially cancers.
Sidney Harold Ingbar, MD (1925-1988) held the William B. Castle Professor of Medicine as well as Chief of Endocrinology positions at Boston City and Beth Israel Hospitals. He was an authority on the physiology of the thyroid gland and its clinical diseases who taught at the Harvard Medical School for most of his career. His research on thyroid hormone transport, the regulation of thyroid hormone synthesis, release, metabolism and action, thyroid autoimmune disease, and control of thyroid cell growth resulted in over 350 scientific publications. Most of his laboratory work dealt with control of thyroid cell growth and the way the thyroid hormone is used in the body.
Roger Charles Louis Guillemin, PhD received the National Medal of Science in 1976, and the Nobel prize for medicine in 1977 for discoveries that laid the foundation for brain hormone research (sharing the prize that year with Andrew Schally and Rosalyn Yalow.) Dr. Guillemin's research has led to treatments in many diseases, including thyroid disease, problems of infertility, diabetes and several types of tumors. Dr. Guillemin also was among the first to isolate endorphins. Following the isolation of endorphins, his work with cellular growth factors (FGFs), in addition to inhibins and activins, led to the recognition of multiple physiological functions and developmental mechanisms.
John T. Potts, Jr., MD is the Distinguished Jackson Professor of Clinical Medicine, Harvard Medical School and Massachusetts General Hospital Endocrine Unit. An internationally recognized authority on calcium metabolism and the hormonal mechanisms that govern it, Dr. Potts has been a pioneer in the chemistry and biology of parathyroid hormone (PTH) and its role in clinical disorders of bone and mineral ion metabolism. The author or co-author of over 500 scientific publications, Dr. Potts’ accomplishments have been recognized worldwide.
Gerald D. Aurbach, MD (1927 – 1991) was Chief of Metabolic Diseases Branch at the National Institute of Diabetes, Digestive and Kidney Diseases. His earliest scientific contributions opened up the modern era of investigation in PTH and its role in normal and abnormal calcium and bone metabolism. His efforts led purification and complete chemical characterization of bovine and human PTH and the synthesis of the biologically active portions of these molecules. He maintained a life-long and close association with the University of Virginia, serving on its Jefferson Scholars Committee and being named as a Centennial Distinguished Alumnus.
The Gerald D. Aurbach Award for Outstanding Translational Research is presented in recognition of outstanding research that accelerates the transition of scientific discoveries into clinical applications that improve human health or elucidate the pathogenesis of human disease. Translational research supported with this award will typically involve expertise, collaboration, and engagement across disciplines.
Jean D. Wilson
Jean Donald Wilson, MD has been at the University of Texas Southwestern since 1960 in the Department of Internal Medicine. His research has primarily focused on two areas: The cholesterol project, developed methods for quantification of cholesterol synthesis, absorption, degradation, and excretion in intact animal. The hormone action project focuses on the dramatic response of the male urogenital tract to testosterone. His findings have mandated reexamination of androgen physiology.
Jack Gorski, PhD (1931–2006) was the Paul H. Phillips Professor Emeritus in the Departments of Biochemistry, Dairy Science, and Animal Sciences at the University of Wisconsin, Madison. Dr. Gorski's groundbreaking research in the field of steroid hormone receptor action, which began in the 1960s, involved the early characterization of the estrogen receptor protein and laid the mechanistic foundations linking estrogen-receptor interactions with the regulation of target cell functions. He was also greatly appreciated and noted for his exceptional contributions as an educator, mentor, and professional leader.
Maria I. New
Maria I. New, MD is a professor of Pediatrics, Genomics and Genetics at Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai and is one of the nation's leading pediatric endocrinologists. Her studies of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) has led to treatments to correct the disorder before the baby is born. Her groundbreaking identification of apparent mineralcorticoid excess has resulted in a new area of receptor biology. She is also the first to describe dexamethasone suppressible hyperaldosteronism, another form of low resin hypertension. Dr. New's seminal research on the mechanism and genetics of steroid disorders has established standards for prenatal and postnatal care for patients with CAH and apparent mineralocorticoid excess.
Wylie Walker Vale, Jr., MD, PhD (1941 – 2012) was head of the Clayton Foundation for Peptide Biology and holder of the Helen McLoraine Chair in Molecular Neurobiology at the Salk Institute. Dr. Vale was highly regarded as the global authority on peptide hormones and growth factors that provide communication between the brain and endocrine system. He discovered a number of hormones and growth factors that provide a molecular link between the brain, endocrine and, immune systems. Dr. Vale and his colleagues became the first to characterize the peptide known as corticotropin releasing factor (CRF). His research helped identify new avenues for diagnosis and treatment of many disorders, including anxiety, depression, and anorexia.
C. Wayne Bardin
C. Wayne Bardin, MD has inspired and led the research and development of new contraceptives in his role of Vice President of the Center of Biomedical Research of the Population Council and as a chairperson of the International Committee for Contraception Research from 1978-1996. Dr. Bardin trained a new generation of scientists in the field of Reproductive Endocrinology who continue innovative research in the United States and abroad. His professional appointments have included: Professor of Medicine, Chief of the Division of Endocrinology, The Milton S. Hershey Medical Center of Pennsylvania State University, and Senior Investigator, Endocrinology Branch, National Cancer Institute.
M. Susan Smith
Susan Smith, PhD is currently a Senior Scientist in the Division of Diabetes, Obesity, & Metabolism and in the Division of Neuroscience, and a Professor of Physiology and Pharmacology in the OHSU School of Medicine. Dr. Smith's primary areas of research interest involve the neuroendocrine control systems governing food intake, energy balance and reproductive function. Having an understanding of the neural substances is important in the regulation of food intake and energy balance, which will lead to better treatments for obesity. In addition, Dr. Smith focuses on the role of maternal environment in the development of the offspring, specifically as it relates to the risk of obesity and diabetes.
D. Lynn Loriaux
D. Lynn Loriaux, MD, PhD is Chief of the Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism at Oregon Health and Science University. He chaired the Department of Medicine at Oregon Health Sciences University for eighteen years and was at the National Institutes of Health for twenty years, eventually becoming Chief of the Developmental Endocrinology branch and Clinical Director of NICHD.He has over 350 peer reviewed publications and his NICHD group was credited with the discovery of five new endocrine diseases and new treatments for a number of endocrine disorders.
P. Michael Conn
P. Michael Conn, PhD, MS, was Senior Vice President for Research, Associate Provost, Texas Tech Health Science Center. Prior to this position he was the Director of the Office of Research Advocacy, Senior Scientist in Reproductive Sciences & Neuroscience (ONPRC), and Professor of physiology and pharmacology, cell biology and development, and OB/GYN at OHSU. Dr. Conn and his team identified an underlying biological principle that has dramatically changed scientists’ understanding of cellular mutations that result in human disease. He demonstrated that it is possible to manipulate and redirect the routing of non-functional diabetes, Alzheimer’s disease and cataracts. During his tenure as President, he founded the Hormone Foundation, now known as the Hormone Health Network.
David Orth, MD has studied ACTH and MSH since the mid to late 60's and has applied them clinically in the characterization, diagnosis and treatment of Cushing's Syndrome. Dr. Orth provided his ACTH assay and ACTH antibody to Wylie Vale, and these proved to be central tools in the purification, isolation, characterization, and synthesis of ACTH-releasing hormone (CRH). Collaborating with Stanley Cohen, he studied epidermal growth factor (EGF) physiology in the mouse, using the first mouse EGF radioimmunoassay, and achieved partial purification and characterization of human EGF, as well as developing a human EGF radioimmunoassay.
Kathryn B. Horwitz, PhD is a University of Colorado Distinguished Professor on the faculty of the Endocrinology Division of the Department of Medicine. Her primary area of research interest is in "luminal" breast cancers whose treatment includes suppression of hormone signaling. She has published papers deal with studies of the molecular biology of estrogen and progesterone receptors; analysis of the stem/progenitor cells of luminal breast cancers; modeling of hormone dependent breast cancer metastisis; translational studies contrasting the genomic underpinnings of hormone-responsive vs. hormone-resistant tumors in patients.
J. Larry Jameson, MD, PhD, an internationally-recognized physician-scientist specializing in molecular endocrinology, is renowned for his exceptional track record of leadership in academic medicine, his experience in fostering interdisciplinary research and collaboration, and his tremendous dedication to medical students and faculty. Penn Medicine and the University community are pleased to welcome him as Executive Vice President of the University of Pennsylvania for the Health System and the 36th Dean of the Raymond and Ruth Perelman School of Medicine.
Benita S. Katzenellenbogen
Dr. Benita S. Katzenellenbogen, PhD is the Swanlund Professor of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, Cell and Developmental Biology at the University of Illinois and College of Medicine. Her seminal work elucidated fundamental aspects of structure-function relationships and mechanisms of action of the estrogen receptors alpha and beta, and demonstrated that estrogens have a remarkably broad spectrum of effects on numerous gene networks and pathways in breast cancer cells. This research has provided the framework for our current understanding of the molecular basis for the action of selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) such as tamoxifen and raloxifene in target cells, and for the development of anti-hormonal treatments that are used in breast cancer treatment and prevention.
William F. Crowley, Jr.
William F. Crowley, Jr., MD, is Professor of Medicine at Harvard Medical School, Chief of the Reproductive Endocrine Unit at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH), and Director of the Harvard Medical School's NICHD Center of Excellence in Reproductive Endocrinology. Dr. Crowley and his colleagues have pioneered the use of GnRH analogues in the treatment of children with central precocious puberty. This finding established a principle of therapy using GnRH agonist-induced pituitary desensitization that is now used in men with prostate cancer and women with endometriosis and uterine fibroids. Dr. Crowley developed the use of pulsatile GnRH to induce ovulation in infertile women and complete sexual maturation and fertility in men with absent or delayed puberty. Most recently, he and his colleagues have identified several new genes that underlie human puberty using genetic and molecular approaches.
John D. Baxter
John D. Baxter, MD (1940–2011) made many fundamental medical discoveries and translated them into clinical therapies that had far-reaching implications for the fields of biotechnology and genetic engineering, and improved the health and welfare of patients worldwide. His laboratory was an early pioneer in molecular biology and recombinant DNA technology, and was first to clone many important genes, including those for rat, human, and bovine growth hormone. His group was first to show that growth hormone could be produced in bacteria; such ‘biosynthetic' human growth hormone is now used worldwide to treat human growth disorders, and biosynthetic bovine growth hormone is used globally to improve milk production. This work became the prototype for all DNA-based human therapeutics and led to the technologies now used throughout the biotechnology industry and academic research laboratories.
E. Chester Ridgway
Chester Ridgway, MD (1942 – 2014) was Executive Vice Chair Medicine, Frederic Hamilton Professor of Medicine, Senior Associate Dean for Academic Affairs, Vice Chair, Department of Medicine at the University of Colorado School of Medicine. His basic research centers on thyrotropin (TSH), the major regulator of the thyroid gland. His laboratory utilizes state-of-the-art molecular techniques to understand the developmental and regulatory factors controlling the alpha and beta subunits of thyrotropin. In human disease, Dr. Ridgway’s laboratory has a long interest in the production of the glycoprotein pituitary hormones by pituitary tumors.
Anthony R. Means
Anthony R. Means, PhD is the Professor Emeritus of Pharmacology and Cancer Biology and Associate Director for Basic Research Emeritus, Duke Cancer Institute at the Duke University School of Medicine. Dr. Means studies cell signaling cascades that regulate cell proliferation, differentiation or function and how alternations in these pathways contribute to development of cancer and other diseases such as obesity. His primary focus is to investigate the cellular and genetic mechanisms that govern regulation of the CaM kinase cascade.
Andrea E. Dunaif
Andrea E. Dunaif, MD is the Charles F. Kettering Professor of Endocrinology and Metabolism at Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine. Dr. Dunaif's research has focused on reproductive physiology and metabolism in women. She is an internationally recognized expert on polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). She is leading a study aimed at identifying genes conferring susceptibility to PCOS and diabetes. She has more than 100 scientific publications, including a highly regarded textbook on PCOS.
Leonard Wartofsky, MD, MACP is Professor of Medicine, Georgetown University School of Medicine, Department of Medicine at Washington Hospital Center. An internationally renowned authority on thyroid disorders, Dr. Wartofsky's interest areas include thyroid physiology, thyroid function in the intensive care unit setting, autoimmune thyroid disease, thyroid cancer, and use of recombinant TSH in the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid cancer. Has authored or co-authored more than 300 articles and book chapters, and served at the editor in chief for the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. He currently is serving as the editor in chief for Endocrine Reviews.
Margaret Shupnik, PhD is Professor of Medicine and Physiology in the Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism as well as Senior Associate Dean for Research at the University of Virginia. Dr. Shupnik's lab focuses on how steroids and peptide hormones regulate gene expression and how these interactions influence physiological and pathophysiological processes. Her collaborative translational work has defined both transcriptional and cytoplasmic signaling pathways underlying estradiol actions and anti-estrogen resistance in breast cancer, and defined new tissue-specific non-genomic pathways of estradiol and androgen action that are active in many tissues.
Robert M. Carey
Robert M. Carey, MD is Professor of Medicine and Dean Emeritus, University of Virginia, School of Medicine. Dr. Carey has focused his clinical interests on cardiovascular and renal endocrinology, and his research on the hormonal control of blood pressure and hypertension. Major discoveries include the identification and characterization of the intrarenal renin-angiotensin system as an independent tissue hormonal system, the expression and functions of the dopamine D1-like receptor family and the angiotensin type-2 (AT2 ) receptor and the role of renal cyclic GMP in the control of sodium excretion and blood pressure. He documented the first case of ectopic corticotropin releasing factor as a cause of Cushing’s syndrome.
Robert A. Vigersky
Robert A. Vigersky, MD is Medical Director, Medical Affairs, Medtronic Diabetes, Professor of Medicine, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, and Director Emeritus, Diabetes Institute, Walter Reed National Military Medical Center. Dr. Vigersky is a leading researcher and sought-after speaker on the use of technology and decision-support systems to improve outcomes for patients with diabetes. He is known as the "father" of The Endocrine Society's Clinical Practice Guideline program which has published 25 evidence-based guidelines in endocrinology over the last 8 years. Dr. Vigersky has published more than 120 scholarly papers and 108 abstracts thus far in his career.
Kelly E. Mayo
Kelly Mayo, PhD is the Department Chair for Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Cell Biology at Northwestern University. Walter and Jennie Bayne Professor of Molecular Biosciences, Weinberg College of Arts and Sciences; Director of Center for Reproductive Science; Member of Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center of Northwestern University. His laboratory in reproductive biology seeks to understand how hormones secreted in the pituitary gland (FSH and LH) act on the ovary to bring about changes in cell proliferation, cell differentiation, and gene expression that will result in ovulation and luteinization of the ovarian follicle during each reproductive cycle. His work focuses on molecular mechanisms regulating normal reproductive function, but is substantially informed by, and relevant to, reproductive disorders that impact fertility.
Janet E. Hall
Janet E. Hall, MD, MS, is Senior Investigator, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences. Previously she was Professor of Medicine at Harvard Medical School, Associate Physician in Medicine at the Massachusetts General Hospital, and the Associate Chief of the Reproductive Endocrine Unit. Her research focuses on the neuroendocrine interactions underlying normal human reproduction and the changes that occur both with aging and in clinical disorders of ovulation. In addition, she has an active clinical practice with a particular interest in menstrual cycle abnormalities (such as polycystic ovarian syndrome, premature menopause, hypothalamic amenorrhea), as well as infertility and menopause. She has extensive experience with the use of clomiphene, gonadotropins and pulsatile GnRH for ovulation induction in women with anovulatory disorders and unexplained infertility.
William F. Young, Jr.
William F. Young, Jr., MD is Professor of Medicine at Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, holding the Tyson Family Endocrinology Clinical Professorship in Honor of Vahab Fatourechi, MD. Dr. Young's clinical research focuses on primary aldosteronism and pheochromocytoma. He is an author of more than 200 medical articles on endocrine hypertension and adrenal and pituitary disorders, has presented at more than 300 national and international meetings, and has been an invited visiting professor at more than 100 medical institutions.
Teresa K. Woodruff
Teresa K. Woodruff, PhD is the Thomas J. Watkins Professor of Obstetrics & Gynecology, the Vice Chair of Research (OB/GYN), the Chief of the Division of Reproductive Science in Medicine, Feinberg School of Medicine and Professor of Molecular Biosciences at the Weinberg College of Arts and Sciences at Northwestern University. She is an internationally recognized expert in ovarian biology and, in 2006, coined the term "oncofertility" to describe the merging of two fields: oncology and fertility. She and her team have literally ‘written the book' on oncofertility, with four volumes describing the basic science activities, perspectives from the medical humanities and the law, a book on medical practice and a book on the communication methods that have been used to translate this work between an interdisciplinary team of scholars. Dr. Woodruff also serves as the founding director of the Women’s Health Research Institute. Dr. Woodruff leads a large group of scientists, postdoctoral fellows, graduate students, undergraduates, visiting scholars and technicians who together make up the Woodruff Lab.
Richard J. Santen
Richard J. Santen, MD is a Professor of Medicine, Endocrinology and Metabolism at the University of Virginia School of Medicine. He is a leading authority in the field of reproductive endocrinology and has worked for more than three decades to increase our understanding of hormone dependent breast and prostate cancers. He is world-renowned for developing a breakthrough therapy for breast cancer. In the mid-1970s, he recognized that blocking an enzyme called aromatase could be highly effective in treating breast cancer in women. Dr. Santen led a group of physicians and scientists in conducting studies exploring and validating this idea. In addition, he has written nearly 400 publications on the treatment of breast and prostate cancer and secured more than $10 million in research grant support. Dr. Santen's work bridges the gap in molecular, translational and clinical research.
Lisa Fish, MD is a faculty member in the Division of Endocrinology and Medical Director of the Diabetes and Endocrinology Clinic at Hennepin County Medical Center in Minneapolis, MN. She also is Assistant Professor of Medicine at the University of Minnesota Medical Center. Dr. Fish is an influential and active leader in clinical endocrinology. Her interests include diabetes, osteoporosis, thyroid and adrenal disease in pregnancy, and hormone abuse.
An active Society volunteer for more than two decades, she has served as Vice President, Physician-in-Practice, and as a member of the Society's Council. She served on the Society's Advocacy and Public Outreach Core Committee and chaired the precursor to the Society's Hormone Health Network. Dr. Fish has represented the Society in work with organizations such as the U.S. Preventative Services Task Force, the American Medical Association and the American Diabetes Association. She has received numerous honors and awards, including the Society's Distinguished Physician Award and Sidney H. Ingbar Distinguished Service Award.
Henry M. Kronenberg
Henry M. Kronenberg, MD is Chief of the Endocrine Unit at Massachusetts General Hospital and Professor of Medicine at Harvard Medical School. There he leads a research group that studies the actions of parathyroid hormone and parathyroid hormone-related protein, with a particular emphasis on bone development, the osteoblast lineage, calcium homeostasis, and the roles of osteoblast-lineage cells in hematopoiesis. Dr. Kronenberg's laboratory in recent years has used a number of genetically altered strains of mice to establish the role of signaling by the PTH/PTHrP receptor in bone.
Dr. Kronenberg received his BA from Harvard University, his MD from Columbia University, his medical house officer training at the Massachusetts General Hospital, and post-doctoral training at the National Institutes of Health, MIT, and Massachusetts General Hospital.
Dr. Kronenberg previously served as President of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research and of the International Bone and Mineral Society. He received the Fuller Albright Young Investigator Award, the William F. Neuman Award, and the Rodan Mentoring Award of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research, the Copp Award of the International Bone and Mineral Society, and the Gerald D. Aurbach Lecture Award of the Endocrine Society.