Cross-Sectional Study on the Assessment of Prevalence & Awareness of T2DM in Rural Ujjain (MP), India.

Presentation Number: MON 594
Date of Presentation: April 3rd, 2017

Aman Khanuja1 and Rashika Bansal*2
1Sanjeevani Hospital and Research Centre, Ujjain, India, 2St Joseph Regional Medical Center, New Jersey


Background: With bulk of the resources exhausted to address communicable diseases, there is a dearth of data on diabetes in India, especially in rural settings where existing health infrastructure is not conducive for diagnosis of T2DM efficiently. Also, the rural masses are not aware of the symptoms of T2DM and as such, cases remain largely under-reported.

Aims: To gauge the prevalence of T2DM in rural regions of Ujjain, and assess the level of awareness on this malady.

Method: This study was conducted between September 1, 2016, & October 31, 2016. Latest Election Commission of India data, & definitions from Census 2011 (Government of India) documents were used to mark the target population of 7 villages of Ujjain South, namely Ninora, Navakeda, Dendiya, Ramwasa, Daudkhedi, Karohan & Jawasiya. Subjects <18 years of age were excluded & the remaining population was stratified according to age. Stratified random sampling was employed to delineate the sample. A Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP) schedule was prepared to judge the awareness of the population on T2DM. Interview method was used. Investigations:

  • BP (Omron JPN1 BP monitor).
  • FPG (Dr. Morepan’s Glucose Monitor (BG-03)).
  • Urine glucose and protein (Uristix®).

Collected data was analyzed using SPSS software ver.


Diabetic: FPG >126mg/dL.
Impaired Glucose Tolerance: FPG >=100mg/dL & <=126mg/dL.
Normal: FPG <100mg/dL.

Results: A sample size of 410 was used of which 201 were females, and 209 were males. The age distribution of the sample ranged from 18 years to 90 years. Prevalence of T2DM was 9.0% (95% CI 6.8% - 11.9%, SE=1.3). Total of 18 females of the 201 sampled and 19 males of the 209 sampled were diabetic. There were 28 (M=14, F=14) people who were newly diagnosed with T2DM, and 9 were known diabetics. Total 38 people (9.26%, M=17,F=21) had impaired glucose tolerance. Mean income of the sample population was INR 68,397 per annum (=1025.35 USD at 1 USD = INR 66.71). Of the total respondents interviewed, 298 were of the opinion that mobile phones were the best medium to raise awareness about T2DM, 77 opted for radio, while 21 opted for television. 214 of those sampled had access to a smartphone.

KAP scores: On a schedule comprising of 31 questions, maximum attainable score was 54.

Of the 410 respondents, 85 scored 0-8; 72 scored 9-16; 111 scored 17-24; 53 scored 25-32; 27 scored 33-40; 46 scored 41-48; 16 scored 49-54. Mean score for the population = 22.236 (Mean F= 18.637; M= 25.698).


  • There is a significant number of unreported cases of T2DM in rural Ujjain.
  • KAP scores show that the masses have a poor understanding of this growing menace with >65% scoring less than half of the maximum obtainable score.
  • Smartphones are ubiquitous in rural areas rendering a smartphone application as a viable option for improving awareness about T2DM among rural masses, and a mobile application will be developed based on analysis of KAP scores.


Nothing to Disclose: AK, RB