Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome and Its Individual Features Across Different (Normal, Overweight, Pre-Obese and Obese) Body Mass Index (BMI) Categories in a Tertiary Hospital: A Cross-Sectional Study

Presentation Number: SAT 504
Date of Presentation: April 1st, 2017

Annabel JOSON Mata*1 and Gabriel Villaflor Jasul2
1St Luke's Medical Center, Quezon City, Philippines, 2St Luke's Medical Center Quezon City, Quezon City, Philippines

Abstract

Metabolic Syndrome is a common condition worldwide. Diagnosis includes 5 main criteria: abdominal obesity, elevated triglycerides, low High density lipoprotein (HDL), elevated fasting blood sugar (FBS) and hypertension. This has been predominantly associated with obesity but recent evidences have shown otherwise especially in Asian. There have been local prevalence studies of metabolic syndrome among Filipinos, but no studies done yet to determine prevalence of metabolic syndrome among the different BMI categories and specifically those with lower BMI.

Objective: To determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its individual components across different BMI categories (normal-weight, overweight, pre obese, obese individuals) among patients seen at Wellness Center and Obesity and Weight Management Center, St. Luke’s Medical Center Quezon City (SLMC-QC).

Methods: This is a cross sectional study which utilized records review of patients seen at the Wellness and Weight Management center at SLMC QC from January 2013 to October 2016. All adult patients’ included with age ≥18 years, BMI of ≥ 18.5 kg/m2 with complete data of Waist circumference and metabolic variables (FBS, HDL, Triglycerides, Systolic and diastolic blood pressure). Classification of patient having metabolic syndrome was based on the NCEP/ATP III-AHA/NHLBI (2005) criteria fulfilling any 3 of the 5 features of the syndrome namely Waist circumference using the Southeast Asians cut off: Male ≥ 90 cm and Female ≥80 cm, Raised Triglycerides of ≥ 150 mg/dL or specific treatment for this lipid abnormality, Reduced HDL cholesterol of <40 mg/dL in males or 50 mg/dL in females or specific treatment for this lipid abnormality, Raised BP with an SBP ≥ 130 mmHg or DBP ≥85 mmHg or treatment of previously diagnosed hypertension and Raised Fasting plasma glucose of FPG ≥100 mg/dL or previously diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

Results: A total of 379 adults were included in the analysis. 92 with normal BMI, mean of 21.09kg/m2, 97 were overweight (mean BMI 24.04 kg/m2), 116 pre obese (mean BMI 27.45 kg/m2 and 74 obese (mean BMI of 38.42 kg/m2) . The prevalence of metabolic syndrome across the BMI categories is 48.3% with highest prevalence in the pre obese group at 16.35% (62) followed by 12.92% (49) in obese, 12.66%(48) in overweight and 6.33%(24) in normal BMI. Among the different components, central obesity with the highest prevalence of 77.89 % and with 12% of which has normal BMI, followed by elevated FBS and elevated BP.

Conclusion: Metabolic syndrome has been commonly linked with obesity and these individuals are at high risk for CVD events. Our data has shown that metabolic syndrome is present even in patients with lower BMI of 18-24.9 kg/m2 hence screening for other components of metabolic syndrome should be done even in normal weight individuals in the presence of even 1 individual component of the syndrome.

 

Nothing to Disclose: AJM, GVJ