Hypogonadism – Hypogonadism is the condition in which the production of sex hormones and germ cells (sperm and eggs) is inadequate.

Hypothalamus – The hypothalamus is an area of the brain that regulates vital autonomic centers and produces hormones that control thirst, hunger, body temperature, sleep, moods, sex drive, and the release of hormones from various glands, primarily the pituitary gland.

Insulin – Insulin is a protein pancreatic hormone secreted by the beta cells of the islets of Langerhans that is essential especially for the metabolism of carbohydrates and the regulation of glucose levels in the blood and that when insufficiently produced results in diabetes mellitus.

Insulin Sensitizers – Insulin sensitizers make cells more responsive to insulin. They are commonly used in patients with type 2 diabetes.

IGF-1 – IGF-1, or insulin-like growth factor 1, is a polypeptide protein hormone similar in molecular structure to insulin. It plays an important role in childhood growth and continues to have anabolic effects in adults.



Kallmann's syndrome – Kallmann's syndrome is form of hypogonadism that is caused by congenital gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) deficiency. It is more common in males. 

Klinefelter's syndrome – Klinefelter's syndrome is the most common congenital abnormality in males causing primary hypogonadism, occurring in approximately 1 in 1000 live male births. This syndrome is the clinical manifestation of a male who has an extra X chromosome.


Luteinizing hormone – Luteinizing hormone—also known as lutropin—is necessary for proper reproductive function and in women it triggers ovulation.


Menopause – Time of life when the ovaries stop making estrogen and the monthly (menstrual) periods stop.

Metabolism – Metabolism is the complete set of chemical reactions inside a cell. The metabolism of an organism determines what it find nutritious and the pace at which is converts nutrients to energy and how it stores excess nutrients.

Metabolic Syndrome – The term metabolic syndrome describes a cluster of metabolic risk factors that increase the chances of developing heart disease, stroke, and diabetes. Genetic factors, too much body fat, and lack of exercise add to the development of the condition.



Obesity – Obesity is typically defined as a body weight 30 percent over the ideal for a person's height, at which point it causes health conditions and leads to increased mortality.

Orchitis – Orchitis is a painful inflammation of the testicles and can lead to hypogonadism.

Osteoporosis – Osteoporosis is the diminishing of bone density, typically related to aging and menopause in women.

Ovaries – Ovaries are the egg producing organs found in females. They produce the hormones estrogen and progesterone

Oxytocin – Oxytocin is a hormone that acts as a neurotransmitter in the brain. It facilitates birth and breastfeeding.