Pancreas – The pancreas secretes insulin, a hormone that helps glucose move from the blood into the cells where it is used for energy. The pancreas also secretes glucagon when the blood sugar is low.

Parathyroid – Located behind the thyroid gland are four tiny parathyroid glands. These make hormones that help control calcium and phosphorous levels in the body. The parathyroid glands are necessary for proper bone development.

Premenstrual Syndrome – Premenstrual syndrome describes the appearance of physical and emotional symptoms during the second half of the menstrual cycle.

Pineal Gland – The pineal is a small endocrine gland located in the center of the brain between the two hemispheres. It secretes melatonin, which helps regulate wake/sleep patterns.

Pituitary Gland – The pituitary is a small endocrine gland located at the base of the skull. It helps control growth, blood pressure, breast milk production, and metabolism.

Placebo – Placebo is an inactive ingredient or drug that is meant to appear like a genuine medicine. Placebos are often used in double blind studies as a control. 

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) – Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine disorder with a host of symptoms related to small painful cysts on the ovaries. It is marked by the overproduction of male hormones in females.

Prader-Willi syndrome – Prader-Willi syndrome is a genetic disorder that can cause a growth hormone deficiency. It is marked by a preoccupation with food, small stature, and learning difficulties.

Premenopause – Premenopause is the time in life when a woman gets monthly periods.

Progesterone – A female hormone that acts on the uterus (womb) to prepare it for receiving an egg following fertilization. When progesterone levels go down each month, this causes the bleeding associated with menstrual (monthly) periods.

Progestin – This is a synthetic form of progesterone. This class of drugs was originally developed to allow absorption by mouth for use in birth control pills.

Prolactin – Prolactin is a peptide hormone associate with lactation. High levels of estrogen during pregnancy stimulate its production.




Sex hormone binding globulin – Sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) is a carrier protein that binds to the hormones testosterone and estradiol making them non-bioavailable.

Steroids – Steroids are any of various molecules—including hormones—that contain a particular arrangement of carbon rings. Some common steroids include sex steroids, corticosteroids, anabolic steroids, and cholesterol.


Testes – Testes are the male reproductive organs. They produce sperm and the hormone testosterone.

Testosterone – Testosterone is a steroid, androgen hormone and the primary male sex hormone. It is produced by the testes in men and ovaries in women, and plays key roles in libido, energy, and immune function in both men and women.