Male reproAdvancing Research and Ensuring Reproductive Health

Explore recent research and guidelines on factors impacting fertility, reproductive health, and aging in men including testosterone studies, sexual development, and osteoporosis.

Experts issue recommendations to provide gender-affirmation treatment for transgender individuals
September 13, 2017 | The Endocrine Society today issued a Clinical Practice Guideline on the treatment for gender-dysphoric/gender-incongruent people, commonly referred to as transgender, to develop the physical characteristics of the affirmed gender…

Testosterone prescribing in VA varies by provider's age, experience, specialty and region
July 18, 2017 | Providers in the Veterans Health Administration (VA) system vary in their testosterone prescribing practices, according to a study published in the Endocrine Society’s Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. This is the first study to examine provider…

The Big Chill: Do Sperm Banks Need Stricter Regulations?
June 2017 | Although it sounds like a plot from a sudsy melodrama, more and more people who were conceived via sperm donation are discovering their half siblings…

Hormones Are Behind Hernias of the Groin in Elderly Men, Study Suggests
April 3, 2017 | Researchers have identified an apparent cause of inguinal hernia, or groin hernia, in older men: altered sex hormone levels that weaken and scar muscle…

Higher Anabolic Hormone Levels Predict Lower Risk of Worsening Frailty in Men
April 3, 2017 | A new study suggests that middle-age and elderly men are less likely to develop worsening frailty if they have high levels of certain anabolic hormones, which are muscle- and bone-building hormones. The study…

Estetrol (E4) Shows Promise as a Safe Effective Drug for Use in Advanced Prostate Cancer
April 3, 2017 | The natural fetal estrogen estetrol, also called E4, is being tested as a new drug that may help treat advanced prostate cancer, according to an ongoing industry-sponsored study…

Many Transgender Individuals Consider Their Fertility Important, Survey Shows
April 2, 2017 | Nearly one-fourth of transgender individuals in Toronto, Canada, regard their own fertility as important, but most lack knowledge regarding and access to reproductive options…

New Molecules May Offer Treatment Option for Some Aggressive Prostate Cancers
April 1, 2017 | Novel molecules called selective androgen receptor degraders (SARDs) may offer the next generation of treatment options for advanced prostate cancer, a new industry-sponsored study&hellip

Landmark Study Defines Normal Ranges for Testosterone Levels
January 10, 2017 | New defined reference range can help limit misdiagnoses and unnecessary treatments. A large study of more than 9,000 men has established harmonized reference ranges for total testosterone in men that when applied to assays that have been appropriately calibrated will effectively enable…

Survey: Endocrinologists Want Training in Transgender Care
January 10, 2017 | Four out of five physicians who specialize in treating hormone health conditions have never received formal training on care for transgender individuals, according to a new study published in the Endocrine Society’s Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism

Explore highlights of current education across the Endocrine Society.

Endocrine Treatment of Gender-dysphoric/Gender-incongruent Persons
Ed. Activity | 1.0 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit™ and ABIM or ABP MOC Part 2 points
Wylie C. Hembree, MD
Throughout recorded history (in absence of an endocrine disorder) some men and women have experienced confusion and anguish resulting from rigid, forced conformity to sexual dimorphism…

Gender-Affirming Endocrine Care of Transgender and Gender Non-Binary People
ENDO Session | No credit available
Guy G. T'Sjoen, MD, PhD
Are you prepared to deliver essential endocrine care to this underserved and often misunderstood patient population?

Partnership for the Accurate Testing of Hormones: Testosterone
Practice Resource | No credit available
Use PATH as your resource to know which assay to use and what the results mean when measuring testosterone.

What have we learned from randomized trials about the efficacy of testosterone therapy?
ENDO Session | No credit available
Chair: Shalender Bhasin, MD
Stay up to date on the outcomes of recent trials on testosterone therapy that include TTrials, TEAAM, and Lilly Testosterone Solution trials.

Explore highlights of current publications across the Endocrine Society journals. Visit for more.

Role of Heat Shock Factor 1 in Conserving Cholesterol Transportation in Leydig Cell Steroidogenesis via Steroidogenic Acute Regulatory Protein
Endocrinology | August 1, 2017
Shintaro Oka, Koji Shiraishi, Mitsuaki Fujimoto, Arpit Katiyar, Ryosuke Takii, Akira Nakai, and Hideyasu Matsuyama
Testosterone is produced in testicular Leydig cells and plays important roles in reproduction, sexual development, and sexual function. Testosterone deficiency results in a disorder of secondary sex characters or male infertility

A Reappraisal of Testosterone’s Binding in Circulation: Physiological and Clinical Implications
Endocrine Reviews | June 29, 2017
Anna L Goldman, Shalender Bhasin, Frederick C W Wu, Meenakshi Krishna, Alvin M Matsumoto, and Ravi Jasuja
In the circulation, testosterone and other sex hormones are bound to binding proteins, which play an important role in regulating their transport, distribution, metabolism, and biological activity. According to the free hormone hypothesis, which has been debated extensively…

Dihydrotestosterone: Biochemistry, Physiology, and Clinical Implications of Elevated Blood Levels
Endocrine Reviews | May 2, 2017
Ronald S. Swerdloff, Robert E. Dudley, Stephanie T. Page, Christina Wang, and Wael A. Salameh
Benefits associated with lowered serum DHT levels after 5α-reductase inhibitor (5AR-I) therapy in men have contributed to a misconception that circulating DHT levels are an important…

Subcutaneous Injection of Testosterone Is an Effective and Preferred Alternative to Intramuscular Injection: Demonstration in Female-to-Male Transgender Patients
JCEM | April 3, 2017
Daniel I. Spratt, India I. Stewart, Clara Savage, Wendy Craig, Norman P. Spack, Donald Walt Chandler, Lindsey V. Spratt, Toni Eimicke, and Jerrold S. Olshan
Testosterone (T) therapy is commonly administered to hypogonadal men and female-to-male (FTM) transgender patients. Since its introduction in the 1930s, parenteral T has typically been administered intramuscularly…

Genetic Variation of Follicle-Stimulating Hormone Action is Associated with Age at Testicular Growth in Boys
JCEM | February 27, 2017
Alexander S. Busch, Casper P. Hagen, Katharina M. Main, Anita Pereira, Camila Corvalan, Kristian Almstrup, Veronica Mericq, and Anders Juul
Although genetic factors play a pivotal role in male pubertal timing, genome-wide association studies have identified only a few loci…

Harmonized Reference Ranges for Circulating Testosterone Levels in Men of Four Cohort Studies in the United States and Europe
JCEM | January 10, 2017
Thomas G. Travison, Hubert W. Vesper, Eric Orwoll, Frederick Wu, Jean Marc Kaufman, Ying Wang, Bruno Lapauw, Tom Fiers, Alvin M. Matsumoto, and Shalender Bhasin
The reference range refers to the distribution of the circulating concentrations of a hormone or an analyte in a specific population. Rigorously derived reference ranges are essential for distinguishing…

Efficacy and Safety of an Injectable Combination Hormonal Contraceptive for Men
JCEM | October 27, 2016
Robert I. McLachlan, M. Cristina Meriggiola, Man Mohan Misro, Gabriela Noe, Frederick C. W. Wu, Mario Philip R. Festin, Ndema A. Habib, Kirsten M. Vogelsong, Marianne M. Callahan, Kim A. Linton, and Doug S. Colvard
The development of a safe and effective reversible method of male contraception is still an unmet need. Objective: Evaluation of suppression of spermatogenesis and contraceptive protection by…

Effects of Testosterone Supplementation for 3 Years on Muscle Performance and Physical Function in Older Men
JCEM | October 18, 2016
Thomas W. Storer, Shehzad Basaria, Tinna Traustadottir, S. Mitchell Harman, Karol Pencina, Zhuoying Li, Thomas G. Travison, Renee Miciek, Panayiotis Tsitouras, Kathleen Hally, Grace Huang, and Shalender Bhasin
Testosterone levels decline with advancing age and have been associated with the age-related changes in lean body…

Cross-Sex Hormone Treatment and Psychobiological Changes in Transsexual Persons: Two-Year Follow-Up Data
JCEM | October 4, 2016
Alessandra D. Fisher, Giovanni Castellini, Jiska Ristori, Helen Casale, Emanuele Cassioli, Carolina Sensi, Egidia Fanni, Ann Maria Letizia Amato, Eva Bettini, Maddalena Mosconi, Davide Dèttore, Valdo Ricca, and Mario Maggi
Gender dysphoria (GD) is characterized by a marked incongruence between one’s experienced/expressed gender and the assigned one, associated with clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning. Because GD can occur with different levels of intensity, a flexible…

Characteristics of Men Who Report Persistent Sexual Symptoms after Finasteride Use for Hair Loss
JCEM | September 23, 2016
Shehzad Basaria, Ravi Jasuja, Grace Huang, Whitney Wharton, Hong Pan, Karol Pencina, Zhuoying Li, Thomas G. Travison, Jag Bhawan, Renaud Gonthier, Fernand Labrie, Alain Y. Dury, Carlo Serra, Allen Papazian, Michael O'Leary, Sami Amr, Thomas W. Storer, Emily Stern, and Shalender Bhasin
Some men who use finasteride for hair loss report persistent sexual and other symptoms after discontinuing finasteride therapy. Objective: To determine whether these persistent symptoms after discontinuation…

For a complete list of Endocrine Society guidelines, visit

Endocrine Treatment of Gender-Dysphoric/Gender-Incongruent Persons
JCEM | September 13, 2017
Wylie C Hembree, Peggy T Cohen-Kettenis, Louis Gooren, Sabine E Hannema, Walter J Meyer, M Hassan Murad, Stephen M Rosenthal, Joshua D Safer, Vin Tangpricha, and Guy G T’Sjoen
Gender affirmation is multidisciplinary treatment in which endocrinologists play an important role. Gender-dysphoric/gender-incongruent persons seek and/or are referred to endocrinologists…

Osteoporosis in Men
JCEM | July 2, 2013
Nelson B. Watts, Robert A. Adler, John P. Bilezikian, Matthew T. Drake, Richard Eastell, Eric S. Orwoll, and Joel S. Finkelstein
Osteoporosis in men causes significant morbidity and mortality. We recommend testing higher risk men [aged ≥70 and men aged 50–69 who have risk factors…

Testosterone Therapy in Men with Androgen Deficiency Syndromes
JCEM | April 30, 2011
Shalender Bhasin, Glenn R. Cunningham, Frances J. Hayes, Alvin M. Matsumoto, Peter J. Snyder, Ronald S. Swerdloff, and Victor M. Montori
We recommend making a diagnosis of androgen deficiency only in men with consistent symptoms and signs and unequivocally low serum testosterone levels. We suggest the measurement…

For additional meetings, visit the Endocrine Society’s Worldwide Endocrinology Calendar at

ENDO 2018
Dates: March 17–20, 2018
Location: Chicago, Illinois, United States
Sponsor: Endocrine Society
ENDO is the world’s largest event for presenting and obtaining the latest in endocrine science and medicine with an extensive program covering a broad array of topics, various networking opportunities, poster sessions, updates on new products and technologies at the ENDOExpo, and more.